The liver is a prime target forin vivogene therapies using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. Multiple clinical trials have been undertaken for this target in the past 15 years; however, we are still to see market approval of the first liver-targeted adeno-associated virus (AAV)–based gene therapy. Inefficient expression of the therapeutic transgene, vector-induced liver toxicity and capsid, and/or transgene-mediated immune responses reported at high vector doses are the main challenges to date. One of the contributing factors to the insufficient clinical outcomes, despite highly encouraging preclinical data, is the lack of robust, biologically and clinically predictive preclinical models. To this end, this study reports findings of a functional evaluation of 6 AAV vectors in 12 preclinical models of the human liver, with the aim to uncover which combination of models is the most relevant for the identification of AAV capsid variant for safe and efficient transgene delivery to primary human hepatocytes. The results, generated by studies in models ranging from immortalized cells, iPSC-derived and primary hepatocytes, and primary human hepatic organoids toin vivomodels, increased our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each system. This should allow the development of novel gene therapies targeting the human liver.